general clinical laboratory manual

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general clinical laboratory manual

The new edition is necessary because of new procedures and technologies developed since the previous edition that have proved useful to small laboratories in developing countries. These new procedures and technologies have been included in the relevant sections of the manual, and some obsolete procedures have been replaced by more up-to-date techniques. The manual provides a practical guide to the safe and accurate performance of basic laboratory techniques. Intended for use by laboratory technicians working in peripheral-level laboratories in developing countries, the book emphasizes simple, economical procedures that can yield accurate results where resources, including equipment, are scarce and the climate is hot and humid. We are proud to offer an extensive menu of clinical tests and services through our four CLIA-certified, CAP-accredited laboratories at Moffitt-Long Hospital, Mission Bay Hospitals, Mt. Zion, and China Basin.You can search for tests as well as find information about laboratory operations and policies, our accreditation and licensing, and other helpful resources. Each test entry contains information about the testing site, method, sample requirements, availability, normal ranges, critical values, as well as additional information on patient preparation, collecting samples, test interpretation, and utilization guidance. Federal CLIA regulations require that we only refer samples for testing to other CLIA (or equivalent) certified laboratories. If the test is available at one of our approved, CLIA certified reference laboratories, it may be ordered in APeX as a Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test (MOLT). When ordering a MOLT, please include the exact name of the test and the name of the laboratory to which it will be sent. Tests on laboratory animals for research purposes, which are charged against research funds, can be performed only after prior arrangement with the Medical Director of the respective section.

Further, per Medical Center policy, the UCSF Clinical Laboratories will not process, package or ship research samples to external research or commercial laboratories. If problems arise related to laboratory testing, please contact a Laboratory Medicine Resident, one of our Medical Directors or an appropriate member of our staff. Choose from 160 CME topics to customize a flexible experience through a variety of learning formats. Its purpose is to ensure consistency while striving for quality. The procedure manual may be used to: It is advisable to include a page at the front of the manual where personnel can “sign-off” when they have read the manual. An annual review would benefit the lab personnel and could be included as part of the overall quality assurance program. Include a general policies section addressing lab-specific issues, such as: The manual must be readily available and followed by laboratory personnel. Textbooks may be used in addition to the procedure manual. The following information is required to be included (CLIA regulations, Subpart K, 493.1211): All procedures must be approved, signed, and dated by the laboratory director. Procedures must be re-approved, signed and dated if the director of the laboratory changes; each change must be approved, signed, and dated by the current laboratory director. The laboratory must maintain a copy of each procedure with the dates of initial use and discontinuance, retaining records for two years after the procedure has been discontinued. It is worth a little extra effort to make sure that it is useful. The design should be determined by the lab’s needs and organization. Some tips include: This system is an abbreviated form; it should contain the first six elements from Table 1. A copy of each card should be included in the actual procedure manual. Sources: NCCLS Document GP2-A3, Clinical Laboratory Technical Procedure Manuals, 3rd ed.; The New Poor Man's (Person's) Guide to the Regulations, Laessig and Ehrmeyer.

Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Show details Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Search term Author Information Authors Marlon L. Bayot 1; Grace D. Brannan 2; Prisha Naidoo 3. These laboratories are manned by medical technologists (clinical laboratory scientists) who are trained to perform various tests to samples of biological specimens collected from its patients. Most of the clinical laboratories are situated within or near hospital facilities to provide access to both physicians and their patients.Classifications of clinical laboratories indicated below reveal that these facilities can provide quality laboratory tests that are significant for addressing medical and public health needs. The list below should not be used as a fixed guide for classifying clinical laboratories because of new areas continually arising in the field of laboratory medicine.These issues are continually addressed by local and international health authorities and technical experts using the framework of a patient-centered approach. Clinical laboratories perform testing in a logical and strict manner. Generally. there are three phases of the laboratory testing process that each facility should follow. Issues of Concern Providing high-quality, diagnostic testing is the goal of all clinical laboratories. To attain this goal, several issues and problems are needed to be addressed which ultimately underline the need for improving laboratory capacity. Addressing human and financial resources, training and supervision, planning and budgeting, quality assurance, logistics and supply, biosafety and equipment management and other relevant laboratory aspects were found to be necessary to optimize laboratory services provided to patients. In 2018, the World Health Organization developed and released the Essential Diagnostics List (EDL).

Such significant risks identified, for instance, in specimen collection and handling and the disposal of laboratory wastes must be taken into consideration by all clinical laboratories. A laboratory information system is valuable in the management of results and other pertinent information regarding patients and their samples. The development of a laboratory information system started in the 1960s concentrating on data reduction-analogue-digital conversion and radioimmunoassay analysis. Clinical Significance As the challenges faced by the clinical laboratories constantly arise, the most important value for each healthcare professional is the recognition its significance for the patient welfare. While patients and people in the community are not well aware of its role, the function and mandate of clinical laboratories remain the same: the provision of high-quality laboratory diagnostic tests. The development of newer diagnostic tests from its pipeline should not overestimate the need for improving existing laboratory services. References 1. Kotlarz VR. Tracing our roots: origins of clinical laboratory science. Schneider F, Maurer C, Friedberg RC. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189. Njoroge SW, Nichols JH. Risk management in the clinical laboratory. Jones RG, Johnson OA, Batstone G. Informatics and the clinical laboratory. Caliendo AM, Gilbert DN, Ginocchio CC, Hanson KE, May L, Quinn TC, Tenover FC, Alland D, Blaschke AJ, Bonomo RA, Carroll KC, Ferraro MJ, Hirschhorn LR, Joseph WP, Karchmer T, MacIntyre AT, Reller LB, Jackson AF., Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). StatPearls Publishing; Treasure Island (FL): Mar 25, 2020. This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.

0 International License ( ), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, a link is provided to the Creative Commons license, and any changes made are indicated. Bookshelf ID: NBK535358 PMID: 30570979 Richardson H. Clin Chim Acta. 1999 Dec; 290(1):57-72. Yokota H, Yatomi Y. Rinsho Byori. 2013 Aug; 61(8):686-91. See reviews. See all. Recent Activity Clear Turn Off Turn On Clinical Laboratory - StatPearls Clinical Laboratory - StatPearls Your browsing activity is empty. Activity recording is turned off. Turn recording back on See more. Lymphocytes in the dog and cat are the same size or smaller than a neutrophil. Download PDF Jelalu Kemal Published by OMICS Gr oup eBooks 731 Gull A ve, Foster City. However, users who aim to disseminate and distribute copies of this book as a whole must not seek monetary compensation for such service (excluded OMICS Group representatives and agreed collaborations). After this work has been published by OMICS Group, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify the original source. Notice: Statements and opinions expressed in the book are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the published chapters. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials, instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book.Hematology studies the blood and blood-forming tissues to evaluate presence of disease and assist in therapeutic interventions as clinically indicated.

Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology and clinical biochemistry) is the area of clinical pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily ?uids. Some of the objectives of this manual are to identify the most important hematological and functional pathological tests of vet importance, to diagnose di?erent animal diseases by con?rming the pathological causes that constraint live stock production and to have knowledge more about clinical pathology. Part one discusses about hematology which includes equipments and reagents, blood collection sites and procedures, preparation method for working solution, staining methods (staining procedures), hemoglobin determination, hematocrit determination (PCV), total RBC count, total WBC count, di?erential leukocyte count, determination of ESR, coagulation time determination, bleeding time, calculating red blood cell indices and blood group and Rh factor determination. Part two deals with function tests which includes determination of Aspartate Amino Trasferase (AST) and Glutamic Oxalacetate Transminase (GOT), determination of Alkaline Phosphtase (ALP), determination of creatinine, total protein determination, urea determination, total and direct bilirubin determination, enzymatic kinetic colorimeter test, liver function test, kidney function test, rumen function test and pancreatic function test. In general, the outline of this laboratory manual deals with the basic hematological procedures and clinical chemistry analysis using which is meant for students use. All of the procedures described in this manual are classical methods that are routinely executed in a standard clinical pathology laboratory. Keywords: Clinical chemistr y; Clinic al pathology; H ematology; Laborato r y tests; M anual Introduction Clinical pathology is one of the two major divisions of pathology, the other being anatomical pathology.

Hematology studies the blood and blood-forming tissues to evaluate presence of disease and assist in therapeutic interventions as clinically indicated. Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology and clinical biochemistry) is the area of clinical pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily ?uids. Blood parameters play a critical role in diagnosis, assessing progression, and in the characterization of disease and phenotypes in clinical and research situations. ?e accuracy and reliability of the whole blood parameter analysis depends on identi?cation and control or elimination of variables that may a?ect these results. Di?erent blood collection and handling strategies represent source of variability that can be controlled in many instances. Basic hematological procedures such as the complete blood count are frequently conducted to help physicians and veterinarians arrive at a diagnosis and prognosis, also to evaluate treatment. Hematology testing includes, but is not limited to: Hematology Sample Processing, Hematology Research Services, Hematology Automated Testing, Lamellar Body Counts, Microscopic Cellular Analysis, Body Fluid Analysis and Specialized Stains. ?e outline of this laboratory manual deals with the basic hematological procedures and clinical chemistry analysis which is meant for students use. ?e study of hematology begins with proper sample collection and handling. Part one deals with hematology containing di?erent sections. Part two covers clinical chemistry including functional tests. All of the procedures described in this manual are classical methods that are routinely performed in a standard clinical pathology laboratory. Detail procedures including preparation of reagents, solutions, stains and bu?ers are given. Calculations of blood indices and chemical analysis are also discussed in part one and part two respectively.

By constricting the area on the dorsal aspects of the fore limb at the level of the elbow which can be raised beginning just above the carpal vein.Short ?lled tubes cause a false increase in total plasma protein content and a false decrease in PCV and RBC count. Figure 2: Collection materials for hematological assessment include syringe, needles, and purple topped collection tubes that contain EDTA.Extracellular blood parasites such as Trypanosomes and Micro?laria of ?larial nematodes can be diagnosed.Erythrocyte and leukocyte count.Both neutrophils have a lobulated nucleus in a light pink ?nely granulated cytoplasm. Figure 6: Feline eosinophils. Eosinophil (top) has granules that are pale pink and rod-shaped.L ymphocytes in the dog and cat are the same size or smaller than a neutrophil. Feline lymphocytes are similar to those in the dog (A and C 100x, B 120x).Bleeding Time Determination.What blood type is a universal donor and why is it said a universal donor. State two di?erences between the ABO and Rh blood type. What would happen if Rh- mother bears a child from Rh- father.Aceto acetic acid and beta-hydroxybutric acid from which acetone is derived is normal intermediate product of fat metabolism. When greater amounts of fatty acids are utilized with the production of more acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutric acid can be oxidized by the tissues. ?ese bodies accumulate in the blood and are excreted in the urine. Rumen Function Test Rumen??uid?is?collected?by?stomach?tube;?keep?it?at?room?temperature?for?9?hours?before?examination. Gross exa mination Color: Color of the rumen content ?uid depends up on the type of the feed. ?e color should be from green to live to brownish green. It will be green in grazing animals and grey in those animals that feed fodder betts, yellow brown in those that feed on silage or straw. Abnormally it may be greenish black in decomposition Consistency: It is slightly viscous under normal condition. ?

is viscosity is pronounced if large amount of saliva is included under the condition; it is advisable to discard the ?rst part of the rumen ?uid. It will be watery in case of acidosis and foamy in foamy bloat.However they are important in stabilizing bacterial digestive process.Please visit our website at Hard copies and CD-ROM or DVD versions can be ordered directly from TIF and are distributed free of charge. All translated publications are or will become available on our website. Check with us to get updated on the latest translations. N E W ! J u s t R e l e a s e d. Free of charge All our publications are available as PDF files on our website, completely free of charge. TIF’s publications have been translated into numerous languages in order to cover the needs of the medical, scientific, patients and parents communities and the general community.Red blood cell (RBC) and differential total white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined using the Neubauer haemocytometer after appropriate dilution. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were calculated as described by Jelalu (2014). Mineral elements of serum samples were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Model 490, Gallenkamp and Co. Ltd., London)... Hence, the assessment of blood of livestock fed unconventional ingredients to ascertain the health status and suitability of the feed or otherwise. All the studied haematological indices were within the established physiological ranges for healthy caprine (Sirois, 1995;Daramola et al., 2005; Jelalu, 2014). Higher lymphocytes and neutrophils of goats fed the treatment diets relative to those fed control diet indicate that UTECH based diets did not compromise the immune status of the goats but rather improved it..

FEED INTAKE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF RED SOKOTO GOATS FED UREA TREATED ENSILED COWPEA HUSK BASED DIETS Article Full-text available Jan 2017 Olurotimi Ayobami Olafadehan O A And Okoye This study aimed to investigate whether the substitution of dried brewers' grains (DBG) with urea treated ensiled cowpea husk (UTECH) at a high level of up to 70% causes voluntary feed intake reduction and has detrimental effects on animal welfare. Five blood ml was collected from the cephalic vein; the blood was collected in a tube containing Ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid-Tri-potassium (EDTA-K3) for leukocyte parameters determination. The whole blood samples were analyzed using BK6100 Auto Hematology Analyzer. A fresh blood was taken to made blood smear to exam the differential count of White blood cells (DWBCs) and Leishman's stain was used to staining the films. The data was analyzed by student's t-test. View Show abstract Jan 2008 Jerry Jiro John W Kaneko Michael I Harvey Bruss Jiro Jerry Kaneko, John W Harvey, Michael I Bruss (2008) Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, Sixth Edition. Duncan and Prasse's Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology Jan 2011 S Kenneth Latimer Kenneth S Latimer (2011) Duncan and Prasse's Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, Fifth Edition. The principles of clinical pathology, a text-book for students and physicians Jan 1907 Krehl Ludolf Von Krehl Ludolf von (1907) The principles of clinical pathology, a text-book for students and physicians; Clinical Case Presentations for Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Jan 2006 Marry Anna Thrall Marry Anna Thrall (2006) Clinical Case Presentations for Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology Jan 1994 J Robert Duncan A Edward Mahaffey W Keith Prasse Robert J Duncan, Edward A Mahaffey, Keith W Prasse (1994) Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, Third Edition. Veterinary Laboratory Medicine.

Organized by disorder type, it features numerous photos, a popular question-and-answer format, and a detailed index that makes it easy to find information quickly. In more than 50 chapters, expert contributors propose key questions and provide authoritative answers addressing the situations that confront small animal veterinarians every day. Although these criteria increase diagnostic accuracy, the clinical and pathologic overlap between progressive supranuclear palsy and other disorders remains. Read more Article Full-text available Kniest Dysplasia: Clinical, Pathologic, and Molecular Findings in a Severely Affected Patient-And Re. The clinical, pathological and radiological features of the case have been reported and discussed. The radiological appearances have been analysed in relation to the histopathological findings. Three patients, aged 47, 55, and 72 at time of presentation, were treated by the authors between 1985 and 1989. Clinical and pathological findings, treatment and outcome are discussed. It is believed to be the first report in the literature of such a tumor primary within the orbit. 2. 2. The nature of these tumors, both clinical and pathologic, is discussed. 3. 3. A review of the literature on hemangiopericytoma is presented in which the different sites of involvement are listed. Read more Discover more Download citation What type of file do you want. RIS BibTeX Plain Text What do you want to download. Citation only Citation and abstract Download ResearchGate iOS App Get it from the App Store now. Install Keep up with your stats and more Access scientific knowledge from anywhere or Discover by subject area Recruit researchers Join for free Login Email Tip: Most researchers use their institutional email address as their ResearchGate login Password Forgot password. Keep me logged in Log in or Continue with LinkedIn Continue with Google Welcome back. Keep me logged in Log in or Continue with LinkedIn Continue with Google No account.

All rights reserved. Terms Privacy Copyright Imprint. Let us help you navigate your in-person or virtual visit to Mass General. The test menu includes general chemistries, hematology, coagulation, blood gas analysis, therapeutic drug testing, endocrine testing, and comprehensive emergency toxicology and psychotropic drug testing services. The laboratory utilizes state-of-the-art technology, including a pneumatic tube transport system, automated analytic systems, and specialized information management to provide rapid services for critical care testing on a 24-hour basis. For more information about these cookies and the data. For the journal, see Clinical Laboratory. For the journal, see Laboratory Investigation (journal). Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. ( Learn how and when to remove these template messages ) Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. ( May 2013 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.For instance, some health facilities have a single laboratory for the microbiology section, while others have a separate lab for each specialty area.The work here is mainly concerned with cultures, to look for suspected pathogens which, if found, are further identified based on biochemical tests. Also, sensitivity testing is carried out to determine whether the pathogen is sensitive or resistant to a suggested medicine. Results are reported with the identified organism(s) and the type and amount of drug(s) that should be prescribed for the patient. For example, fecal samples may be examined for evidence of intestinal parasites such as tapeworms or hookworms. Other specialized tests include cell counts on various bodily fluids.

These tests, mostly automated, includes quantitative testing for a wide array of substances, such as lipids, blood sugar, enzymes, and hormones. Urine and blood samples are the common specimens. Compatibility of transplanted organs may also be determined with these methods. It also prepares blood components, derivatives, and products for transfusion. This area determines a patient's blood type and Rh status, checks for antibodies to common antigens found on red blood cells, and cross matches units that are negative for the antigen. If more precise quantification of urine chemicals is required, the specimen is processed in the clinical biochemistry lab. This can be helpful in cases of prenatal diagnosis (e.g. Down's syndrome ) as well as in some cancers which can be identified by the presence of abnormal chromosomes. The decline is primarily due to retirements, and to at-capacity educational programs that cannot expand which limits the number of new graduates. Professional organizations and some state educational systems are responding by developing ways to promote the lab professions in an effort to combat this shortage.You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. ( May 2016 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Hospital laboratories are attached to a hospital, and perform tests on their patients. Private (or community ) laboratories receive samples from general practitioners, insurance companies, clinical research sites and other health clinics for analysis. For extremely specialised tests, samples may go to a research laboratory. Some tests involve specimens sent between different labs for uncommon tests. For example, in some cases it may be more cost effective if a particular laboratory specializes in a less common tests, receiving specimens (and payment) from other labs, while sending other specimens to other labs for those tests they do not perform.

Organisations that provide blood products for transfusion to hospitals, such as The Red Cross, will provide access to their reference laboratory for their customers. Some laboratories specialize in Molecular diagnostic and cytogenetic testing, in order to provide information regarding diagnosis and treatment of genetic or cancer-related disorders.Inpatient specimens will already be labeled with patient and testing information provided by the LIS. Entry of test requests onto the LIS system involves typing (or scanning where barcodes are used) in the laboratory number, and entering the patient identification, as well as any tests requested. This allows laboratory analyzers, computers and staff to recognize what tests are pending, and also gives a location (such as a hospital department, doctor or other customer) for results reporting.This label has a barcode that can be scanned by automated analyzers and test requests uploaded to the analyzer from the LIS.For example, chemistry samples are usually centrifuged and the serum or plasma is separated and tested. If the specimen needs to go on more than one analyzer, it can be divided into separate tubes.Some laboratories use robotic sample handlers ( Laboratory automation ) to optimize the workflow and reduce the risk of contamination from sample handling by the staff.Nurses and doctors generally have their patients tested at least once a day with common tests such as complete blood counts and chemistry profiles. These orders are typically drawn during a morning run by phlebotomists for results to be available in the patient's charts for the attending physicians to consult during their morning rounds. Another busy time for the lab is after 3:00 pm when private practice physician offices are closing. Couriers will pick up specimens that have been drawn throughout the day and deliver them to the lab. Also, couriers will stop at outpatient drawing centers and pick up specimens.

These specimens will be processed in the evening and overnight to ensure results will be available the following day.Formats for terminologies for test processing and reporting are being standardized with systems such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) and Nomenclature for Properties and Units terminology (NPU terminology).Results are made available to care providers electronically or by printed hard copies for patient charts.In some countries, staffs composed of clinical scientists do the majority of this work inside the laboratory with certain abnormal results referred to the relevant pathologist. Clinical scientists have the responsibility for limited interpretation of testing results in their discipline in many countries. Interpretation of results can be assisted by some software in order to validate normal or non-modified results.Medical staff are sometimes also required in order to explain pathology results to physicians. For a simple result given by phone or to explain a technical problem, often a medical technologist or medical lab scientist can provide additional information.In others, a consultant, medical or non-medical, may be the head the department. In Europe and some other countries, Clinical Scientists with a Masters level education may be qualified to head the department. Others may have a PhD and can have an exit qualification equivalent to medical staff (e.g., FRCPath in the UK).Credentialing agencies vary by country. The international standard in use today for the accreditation of medical laboratories is ISO 15189 - Medical laboratories - Requirements for quality and competence. Legislative guidelines are provided under CLIA 88 ( Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments ) which regulates Medical Laboratory testing and personnel.On 16 February 2004, HKAS launched its medical testing accreditation programme.Accreditation Canada ( AC ) is the national reference.